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Allison
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Age: 43
Location: Falkland Islands, Falkland Islands, Port Howard
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Finally, each man, in giving himself to all, gives himself to nobody; and as there is no associate over which he does not acquire the same right as he yields others over himself, he gains an equivalent for everything he loses, and an increase of force for the preservation of what he has. (Rousseau. P.192)
Thomas Hobbes philosophized about the Nature of Man in the State of Nature. Hobbes believes that man in the State of Nature, in which there is no sovereign, would live like the beasts of the wild. Hobbes claims that the State of Nature is a State of War, where every man is in competition to survive with every man. There are no laws in the State of Nature, because there is no sovereign to enforce the laws. Therefore every man can do whatever is necessary to survive, regardless of the consequences (Hobbes 186). Hobbes argues that any government is better than the State of Nature or State of War.
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05/22/2017
The French philosopher Rene Descartes lived from 1596-1650. He was the son of an aristocrat and traveled throughout Europe studying a wide-variety of subjects including math, science, law, medicine, religion, and philosophy. Descartes was greatly influenced by other thinkers of the Age of Enlightenment.

Mill answers these objections brilliantly. The part of the person's actions others should be concerned with is the damage the actions do to others. A person who is a drunk and fails to meet his family obligations, therefore hurting his family, should be punished. The punishment, however, is for failing to meet his family obligations not for being a drunk. Mill writes:
 
05/18/2017
Plato answers by claiming that morality is a necessary cause of happiness, that one's happiness is correlary to one's moral behavior. Therefore, an immoral person would be motivated to be moral if he wants to be happy. The happy person, according to Plato, is the just person, a claim that he posits in two ways:

The psychic harmony of the soul, according to Plato, expresses itself in four cardinal virtues, which are each related to the three basic energies of the soul. In relation to Reason, the happy or just person possesses Wisdom (or prudence). In relation to Emotion, the just person has the virtue of Courage. In relation to Appetite, the just person owns the virtue of Temperance, which is the control of natural desires. Flowing outward from this psychic harmony is the fourth cardinal virtue, Justice. Wisdom, Courage and Temperance are directly related to one's own self-control; Justice flows outward from this harmony, and is directed towards other people through acts of charity and kindness.
 
05/23/2017
The basis of justice, according to Socrates, is that you do what is socially most beneficial or what you do best.

For whether I am awake or dreaming, 2 and 3 are 5, a square has no more than four sides, and it does not seem possible that truths so evident can ever be suspected of falsity. Yet even these truths can be questioned. That god exists that he is all-powerful and created me such as I am, has long been my settled opinion. (Descartes, Rene, "Meditations," Struhl, Paula Rothenberg, and Struhl Karsten J., editors, Philosophy Now. Random House: 1980, P 89)
 
05/22/2017
Descartes later claims this allows him to verify other things. He says he may be dreaming and his senses may be deceiving him, but: the imaging, qua active power, is none the less really in me, as forming part of my thinking. Again I am the being who senses, that is to say, who apprehends corporeal things as if by the organs of sense, since I do in truth see light, hear noise, feel heat. . . .this is what in me is called sensing, and as used in this precise manner is nowise other than thinking (Descartes, P. 94).

I can see the beginning of the western conception of the state and its relationship to the individual in Hobbes' Leviathan. I do, however, question many of his conclusions. This is to be expected since Hobbes is best read as a piece of historical political philosophy, demonstrating the development of the western conception of the state.
 
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Finally, each man, in giving himself to all, gives himself to nobody; and as there is no associate over which he does not acquire the same right as he yields others over himself, he gains an equivalen...
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At the age of nine Charles was sent to reform school after being caught stealing, kicking off his life of crime. Again, caught stealing, at 12 years old he was sent off to a boys school in Indiana. Le...
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Additional terminology is always helpful for the learners of metaphysics. It is important to be able to know what certain words and phrases mean when spoken by a lecturer who is going to go into much ...
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Locke's concept of the social contract is much more palitable than Hobbes' was. Locke not only delineates the nature and cause of the social contract, but he rationalizes his reasoning better. Locke's...
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So we cannot sin except of our own fault, yet we cannot be righteous without the intervention of god. This seems to be a far too convenient of a policy to be another "we can't understand god" ambiguit...
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Likewise, the soldier going to fight the enemy sometimes has the right to refuse. The soldier has the right to transfer his service by paying another to take his place (269). A soldier may also run aw...
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According to Locke, "If one is to act in such a way that appears contrary to the natural laws, it is the right and responsibility of all men affected by these actions to judge and punish the offender....
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Socrates, however, consistently cites that the people of the kallipolis, raised in virtue, justice, and with a knowledge of what is good, will realize the justice of the kallipolis and act according t...
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Usually, for beginners the best places to gather information about this re-emerging and mysterious topic, is at local lectures or workshops. Other resources may be the library or people who are intere...
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Locke outlined the aims and purposes of the state in his "Two Treatises of Government", and by the time of the American Revolution, Locke's principles and philosophies were well known and deeply embed...
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05/31/2017 3:32 am | Lecturers White
Plato's writings were arranged in groups of four. The dialog form used by Plato came naturally out of Greek drama, the Athenian habit of discussion and the use of dialog by Socrates.

Hobbes also seem...
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06/18/2017 11:32 pm | Comes Verifiable
Currently Jerry Falwell's "Moral Majority" is trying to alter the way people think and behave according to their own agenda. The "Moral Majority" believes its way to behave is correct and all other mo...
I can see the beginning of the western conception of the state and its relationship to the individual in Hobbes' Leviathan. I do, however, question many of his conclusions. This is to be expected sinc...
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06/13/2017 5:17 pm | Concentrate Sever
An easy rebuttal to this objection is simply that we don't yet know the truth about electrons and water, and thus the form. This objection has no scientific basis. Any more accurate description of ele...
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Likewise, the soldier going to fight the enemy sometimes has the right to refuse. The soldier has the right to transfer his service by paying another to take his place (269). A soldier may also run aw...
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Mill notes that it may be further objected that a person may set a bad example for others by his actions and in that way do harm to others (75). Therefore, we should be concerned with everyone's actio...
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Dewey is asking us to accept the selective emphasis of the "inconclusive integrity of experience" as a starting point, but by doing so he is guilty of what he criticizes. How can there be "an empirica...
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Member since: 04/10/2006
Profile last updated: 04/10/2006
Current Status: Offline
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