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Jonathan
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At the end of Section 9 Hume writes: "But our wonder will perhaps cease or diminish when we consider that the experimental (experiential) reasoning itself, which we possess in common with beasts, and on which the whole of conduct depends, is nothing but a species of instinct or mechanical power that acts in us unknown to ourselves, and in its chief operations is not directed by any such relations or comparison of ideas as are the proper objects of our intellectual faculties." Hume's argument that human instincts are similar to animal instincts, however humans differ from animals in regards to the facts makes sense, but it makes more sense to combine experience with thought.
They are deprived of the opportunity of exchanging error for truth: if they are wrong, they lose, what is almost as great a benefit, the clearer perception and livelier impression of truth, produced by its collision with error. . . . Those who desire to suppress it, of course deny its truth; but they are not infallible. They have no authority to decide the question of all mankind, and exclude every other person from the means of judging. (18)
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05/26/2017
The final aim of all three works, however, is to create an encompassing philosophy which creates an impetus to be good and just. Love, virtue, mercy, peaceful coexistence, etc. are all elements which these philosophies emphasize. The method of attaining these virtues is even similar through rational thought, intelligent belief, or Jnana or Karma Yoga respectively.

Descartes develops a correspondence theory of truth. However, for Descartes, truth is always going to have to remain private. He believes we have direct and immediate contact with our own ideas. Whatever we see we bring back to our minds. If we don not like what that something, then we distort it. Our eyes and other senses distort the truth and can deceive us. Descarte says: I have accepted as possessed of the highest truth and certainty I have learned either from the senses or through the senses. Now these senses I have sometimes found to be deceptive; and it is only prudent never to place complete confidence in that by which we have even once been deceived. (Descartes, Rene, "Meditations," Struhl, Paula Rothenberg, and Struhl Karsten J., editors, Philosophy Now. Random House: 1980, P. 88)
 
05/20/2017
learn many things from experience, and infer, that the same events will always follow the same causes. By this principle they become acquainted with the more obvious properties of external objects, and gradually, from their birth, treasure up a knowledge of the nature of fire, water, earth, stones, heights, depths, &c., and of the effects which result from their operation. (Hume, David S. "Concerning Human Understanding" Section IX, 83.)

Usually, for beginners the best places to gather information about this re-emerging and mysterious topic, is at local lectures or workshops. Other resources may be the library or people who are interested in "new age" concepts, perhaps including yoga instructors, massage therapists, homeopathists, reverands, astrologers, and mediums/channelers or anyone who works with energy and healing.
 
05/19/2017
John Locke was the son of a wealthy family who sought to maintain and justify his family's wealth in the chapter "Of Property" in his Second Treatise of Government. Locke believes that the purpose of government is to protect property and that societies were set up to avoid civil or foreign wars that may occur over the dispute of property. Locke attempts to rationalize the right of men having "unequal possessions of the earth" (Locke 29), but fails because he does not recognize that unequal ownership of property does not allow for the basis of his argument that ownership of property is only justified if there is good and enough for others (Locke, 20).

The sovereign (government) according to Hobbes is the glue that holds society together. The sovereign enacts and enforces laws. The sovereign is the power that all men fear if they break the law. The sovereign has the right to execute its citizens if they are found guilty, but the citizen has no obligation to assist in his own execution or death (Hobbes 199). It is against the Law of Nature not to resist death. Hobbes states: "For though a man may covenant thus, Unlesse I do so, or so, kill me; he cannot covenant thus, Unlesse I do so, or so, I will not resist you, when you come to kill me" (Hobbes 199).
 
05/20/2017
Machiavelli employs the conditional patterns of argumentation developed by the Stoic logicians. He frequently uses the dilemma form since this is useful for presenting alternative courses of action along with their consequences. He skillfully avoids being caught in false dilemmas, however. For example, when considering whether it is better to be loved or feared, he first points out that it is desirable--though not easy--to be both loved and feared. Plato believed that the ruler without moral virtue was unjust. A true ruler was just regardless of the circumstances. By doing evil to those evil men, are we not adding to their evil, making them more evil? It follows that justice involves the actual creation of evil.

The prerequisites before embarking on a metaphysical path requires the two following things: a belief in a God and the possibility of an afterlife. If these two concepts are not met, one will have trouble grasping the concepts of metaphysics. Also, if an individual has more traditional views of religion, this will also serve as an obstacle to learning metaphysics, as metaphysics takes a non-traditional route to religion, otherwise known as spirituality. Actually, this fact alone makes metaphysics a more flexible and graspable means of spirituality without rules and regulations, that almost anyone can grasp, other than the die-hard skeptics who are most likely out to disprove the concepts and not take advantage of them.
 
05/18/2017
Descartes later claims this allows him to verify other things. He says he may be dreaming and his senses may be deceiving him, but: the imaging, qua active power, is none the less really in me, as forming part of my thinking. Again I am the being who senses, that is to say, who apprehends corporeal things as if by the organs of sense, since I do in truth see light, hear noise, feel heat. . . .this is what in me is called sensing, and as used in this precise manner is nowise other than thinking (Descartes, P. 94).

It is interesting to note, however, the detachment which Hinduism in the Gita produces between actions and their results. Krishna does say to concentrate on ones actions, never on their fruits, but how does this serve to completely sever the moral judgment of Arjuna upon fighting and killing his own family? The main argument seems to rest on the defamation Arjuna will experience if he does not fight.
 
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The Common Love is for those with weak hearts and the inability to see past the physical to the inner beauty. This is also the Love most experience in the latter half of the twentieth Century. We know...
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The knowledge gained from these experiences is not gathered through reasoning, but instinct.

Kierkegaard's The Sickness Unto Death Part II is about sin, what sin is, how it develops, different kinds ...
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Augustine seems to have practically plagiarized Plato. Substitute "god" for "the good" and "the divine" for "the forms" and there you have it: Augustine's philosophy. He even adopts the technique of a...
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Descartes later claims this allows him to verify other things. He says he may be dreaming and his senses may be deceiving him, but: the imaging, qua active power, is none the less really in me, as for...
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06/05/2017 12:24 am | Delves Skirts Labor
How does this effect Popper's criticism of Marxism as not scientific when nothing has technically been disproven and cannot be disproven unless another form of social production comes into existence? ...
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06/01/2017 2:04 am | Money Refuse Frustrates
Perhaps the leap from philosophical metaphysics to philosophical pragmatics was too steep for Dewey. Nature changes slowly and so do our values and the way we experience nature. Dewey's pragmatism bui...
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06/16/2017 2:54 am | Parallel Superficial Inspection
Additionally, Hume speaks of miraculous events recorded throughout history and shows that there is no acceptable reason to believe in these miracles because they are never witnessed by a vast number o...
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06/05/2017 2:20 am | Instills Marginal Utility
Dewey's work helps us put aside that spirit of seriousness which artists traditionally lack and philosophers are traditionally supposed to maintain. For the spirit of seriousness can only exist in an ...
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06/20/2017 10:37 pm | Predict Technically Disproven
In 1951 Manson set out for California, making his way there by auto theft. Before he could make it to his destination Charlie was caught in Utah and again sent away. While in this institution Charlie ...
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Plato's concept of forms raises many interesting questions. The concept that everything in the physical world has a form or ideal theoretical existence seems fairly valid upon a cursory examination. A...
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Hofstader, a supporter of Dewey's metaphysics describes "the aim of metaphysics as a general theory of existence. . .the discovery of the basic types of involvement's and their relationships" (Qtd in ...
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The Socrates Plato describes refuses to accept payment for formal instruction, and had no school. Socrates taught by asking questions and inducing debate. The truth can only be discovered by eliminati...
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Member since: 04/10/2006
Profile last updated: 04/10/2006
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