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Gavin
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The basis of justice, according to Socrates, is that you do what is socially most beneficial or what you do best.
Hobbes also seems to have entered his argument with the foregone conclusions that 1) monarchy is the best form of the state and that 2) a monarch or government need not be accountable in any way to his/its subjects. These assertions seem rather out of character with the rationalistic tone of his logical walk through the meaning and origin of the social covenant. Why is absolute power transferred once and assumed to be forever safeguarded by a benevolent authority? For the covenant to work, would not each king have to be approved by the populace in a new covenant?
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02/24/2017
Dewey states previous philosophers used a non-empirical method that "starts with a reflective product as if it were primary, as if it were the original given" (Dewey, John, Experience and Nature. Dover: New York, 1958, P. 9). Dewey then contradicts himself on the same page by stating:

For whether I am awake or dreaming, 2 and 3 are 5, a square has no more than four sides, and it does not seem possible that truths so evident can ever be suspected of falsity. Yet even these truths can be questioned. That god exists that he is all-powerful and created me such as I am, has long been my settled opinion. (Descartes, Rene, "Meditations," Struhl, Paula Rothenberg, and Struhl Karsten J., editors, Philosophy Now. Random House: 1980, P 89)
 
02/26/2017
It seems however, that the intrinsic sense of justice that members of the kallipolis naturally have is useful only in terms of "following the laws," not for anything more abstract or permanent, as Socrates argues in Book 1 of The Republic.

If people did not give up their rights, they could not leave the State of Nature. Rousseau claims that everyone gives up his or her rights equally:
 
02/26/2017
2. If x is just, then x is happy.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau makes it explicitly clear in his writings, "The Social Contract and Discourses" that he believes strongly in personal freedom and autonomy. Rousseau believed that a truly free government is one where everyone votes, every citizen. Rousseau argues that by everyone surrendering his or her rights to the sovereign equally they maintain freedom. He believes man has the most freedom in the state of nature, but because man has the ability to rationalize and the desire to be social, he must enter a social contract with others in order to have a free and equal society. Rousseau adamantly defends his belief in autonomy in his Discourses on the State of Nature, the Social Contract, and Sovereignty.
 
02/19/2017
Locke believed that in order to understand the nature of power we must examine the origins of it. He felt that "Nature is a state of perfect equality amongst all men. In this state, no one man has more power or jurisdiction than any other man." His stipulation for this equality, however, was that a person who was out to harm himself or others should not be given equal rights under the law.

On the other hand, de Beauvoir could assert that other's freedom is necessary to your own freedom, and thus you must value their freedom in order to be truly free. This latter valuation of other's freedom seems to be what de Beauvoir is advocating. On page 60 she states, "Two attitudes are possible. He can become conscious of the real requirements for his own freedom, which can will itself only by destining itself to an open future, by seeking to extend itself by means of the freedom of others. Therefore, in any case, the freedom of other men must be respected and they must be helped to free themselves." It seems that this quote is saying in effect that your own freedom, once realized becomes part of the world of facticity and yields nothing to the for-itself.
 
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Rorty is not asking us to abandon Dewey. Instead he attempts to show how Dewey, in his quest for a metaphysics, loses his direction and falls prey to his own criticism. Rorty avoids selective emphasis...
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No person ought to be punished simply for being drunk; but a soldier or a policeman should be punished for being drunk on duty. Whenever, in short, there is a definite damage, either to an individual ...
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It seems that Augustine's view of grace versus free will reacts in a similar fashion. Grace is that act of god by which our souls can turn from a carnal and sinful existence to look toward the world a...
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If we apply Dewey to Dewey we find that his naturalistic metaphysics does not wash. Rorty is correct he makes the same mistakes he criticizes. How can there be a definitive naturalistic metaphysics of...
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The psychic harmony of the soul, according to Plato, expresses itself in four cardinal virtues, which are each related to the three basic energies of the soul. In relation to Reason, the happy or just...
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03/19/2017 6:37 am | Respected Helped Quote
Modern times have obviously proven Marx' assumptions of the self-destructive tendency of capitalism to be much more latent and controllable. The dynamic and destructive capitalist economy which 1) rep...
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03/19/2017 1:53 am | Pedro Three
Locke's assertion that an alien is exempt from the laws of a country to which he is not a citizen is a curious segment of his doctrine. Would an alien then be free to commit crime in a foreign land? W...
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If we apply Dewey to Dewey we find that his naturalistic metaphysics does not wash. Rorty is correct he makes the same mistakes he criticizes. How can there be a definitive naturalistic metaphysics of...
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Descartes has a clear distinct picture of God, which he cannot, and will not doubt. He believes all other truths can be doubted, but not God.

Plato was Greek philosopher, born into a distinguished fa...
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Mill answers these objections brilliantly. The part of the person's actions others should be concerned with is the damage the actions do to others. A person who is a drunk and fails to meet his family...
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Hume claims that humans are like animals:

The fact that Kierkegaard's analysis is random musing and not dialectics is reinforced by the recurrence of old ambiguities as seen in Augustine: free will v...
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