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Likewise, the soldier going to fight the enemy sometimes has the right to refuse. The soldier has the right to transfer his service by paying another to take his place (269). A soldier may also run away in battle for fear of his/her life (270). A soldier, however, that accepts money to fight has no obligation to refuse the sovereign (270). According to Hobbes, a soldier does not have the right to refuse if "refusal to obey, frustrates the End for which the Soveraignty was ordained; then there is no Liberty to refuse: otherwise there is" (269). Therefore a soldier may refuse to fight if to do so does not hurt the sovereign's goals.
All three works have emphasized the transitory nature of the material world and the transcendence of the realm of rational thought, belief in god, or living in the ways of Krishna. Plato and the Gita especially emphasize the necessity of people doing what suits them best. Meanwhile the concept of an omnipotent, omnipresent, omniscient god from which all existence must come from directly parallels Krishna and all of existence, mentality, sensation and thought existing within him.
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05/17/2017
By making a big deal of the charge of corrupting the youth, Plato garners more sympathy from the youth. It is as if their leaders are saying they are not smart enough to think for themselves, and to choose between true and false. Plato writes in a style that makes the philosophy more easily acceptable to the youth, by making their parents and the ruling party their enemy. Plato never entered politics. He chose instead to induce change through the teachings of his philosophy at his school the Academy. He did induce some change because "Unlike Socrates, Plato took no part in the civic life of Athens, but he was much more interested in political philosophy, and is said to have been consulted by statesman both at home and abroad" (Plato, "Apology: Introductory Note." Great Works of Literature, 01-01-92). The treatise was successful considering Plato's works are still used to today by many political-philosophers.

Plato's concept of forms raises many interesting questions. The concept that everything in the physical world has a form or ideal theoretical existence seems fairly valid upon a cursory examination. A theoretically perfect model for an object created by a human is rooted in common sense. This, however, is largely due to the mathematical and geometrical relationships between a "chair" and a constructed chair and a "house" and a constructed house. The form in terms of mathematics is much more easily identifiable than the abstraction involved in an organism's form.
 
05/21/2017
These clauses, properly understood, may be reduced to one, the total alienation of each associate, together with all his rights, to the whole community; for, in the first place, as each gives himself absolutely, the conditions are the same for all; and, this being so, no one has any interest in making them burdensome to others. (Rousseau, John-Jacque. "The Social Contract." The Social Contract and Discourses, P. 191)

Thomas Hobbes philosophized about the Nature of Man in the State of Nature. Hobbes believes that man in the State of Nature, in which there is no sovereign, would live like the beasts of the wild. Hobbes claims that the State of Nature is a State of War, where every man is in competition to survive with every man. There are no laws in the State of Nature, because there is no sovereign to enforce the laws. Therefore every man can do whatever is necessary to survive, regardless of the consequences (Hobbes 186). Hobbes argues that any government is better than the State of Nature or State of War.
 
05/26/2017
Matters of fact, which are the second objects of human reason, are not ascertained in the same manner; nor is our evidence of their truth, however great, of a like nature with the foregoing. The contrary of every matter of fact is still possible; because it can never imply a contradiction, and is conceived by the mind with the same facility and distinctness, as if ever so conformable to reality. That the sun will not rise tomorrow is no less intelligible a proposition, and implies no more contradiction than the affirmation, that it will rise. We should in vain, therfore, attempt to demonstrate its falsehood. (Hume, David S. "Concerning Human Understanding" Section IV, Part I, 20)

In order for the for-itself to have a project, especially a project which posits its own freedom, it must choose a grander goal than simply self-liberation and self-satisfying selfishness. Since freedom is the basis of all values, it necessarily places itself as the forebear of all value schemes, thus it is an ultimate value scheme. If this is the case, does not the action of a truly "liberated" and "free" person fall back into the realm of determinism since their ultimate value scheme is a "necessary" and not a choice?
 
05/22/2017
The range of Plato's knowledge was vast. He developed a deep insight into all the arts and sciences, including mathematics, physics, astronomy, politics, ethics, esthetics, poetry, painting, sculpture, and music. He remained a devoted follower of Socrates until Socrates death. He traveled extensively in Greece, southern Italy, Sicily, and even Egypt and Northern Africa.

In short, all the materials of thinking are derived either from our outward or inward sentiment: the mixture and composition of these belongs alone to the mind and will. Or. To express myself in philosophical language, all our ideas or more feeble perceptions are copies of our impressions or more lively ones. (Hume, David S. "Concerning Human Understanding" Section II, 13.)
 
05/24/2017
Additionally, Hume speaks of miraculous events recorded throughout history and shows that there is no acceptable reason to believe in these miracles because they are never witnessed by a vast number of credible men, or do they still occur in present day society. He states that "Men should lye in all Ages," which means that ignorant men have fantasized about miraculous events and have told them to a willing public. The public embraces anything that soothes their superstitious beliefs, and will therefore be extremely willing to accept the fantastical stories as truth. Hume discredits this argument by saying that sufficient opposition to the miracles is realizing the impossibility that such an event could occur in nature. Hume also adds to his argument by saying that nothing can be relegated to the "Laws of Nature" unless it has been repeated many times throughout nature. This statement goes against miracles, which are the foundation of religion, because they have not held up under natural laws, and therefore, the population is being deluded into religious belief from pious individuals in society.

Selective emphasis of any kind is not necessary for us to use Dewey's method to unmask new truths. The only thing necessary according to Dewey, is empirical experience. When the experience is completed, we will uncover the truth. In fact, selective emphasis, according to Dewey, leads to experiences without problems or nothing to discover (since there are no problems)! Selective emphasis removes the need to reflect, because it removes the problem. There is no enhanced meaning through reflection, valuation, and experience if we use selective emphasis; only a question for which the answer has already been determined.
 
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Plato in seeking the truth, figured a military coup would never succeed in over throwing the government that killed his teacher, and tried to silence his teacher's teachings. The best way to implement...
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The Greeks recognized that there were two kinds of love, Common Love and Noble Love. The combination of these two loves will make for an everlasting love. It is the love of mind, body, and soul, not t...
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Now empirical method is the only method which can do justice to this inclusive integrity of "experience." It alone takes this integrated unity as the starting point for philosophic thought. Other meth...
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It seems that Augustine's view of grace versus free will reacts in a similar fashion. Grace is that act of god by which our souls can turn from a carnal and sinful existence to look toward the world a...
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By making a big deal of the charge of corrupting the youth, Plato garners more sympathy from the youth. It is as if their leaders are saying they are not smart enough to think for themselves, and to c...
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Hobbes' definition of justice also deserves questioning. Is injustice really as he defines it, as a sort of follow the laws . . . regardless of other considerations (i.e. morality, values, etc)? Again...
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05/30/2017 10:35 am | Realized Dependent Factors
Here Hume goes too far. In defense of his own argument, he makes a claim he cannot prove through experience. He is rationalizing that experiences differ between individuals because we all have differe...
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06/04/2017 1:38 am | Especially Seems
Kierkegaard's The Sickness Unto Death Part II is about sin, what sin is, how it develops, different kinds of sin, varying degrees of severity, etc. Unfortunately, this concept of sin and the related e...
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06/18/2017 11:14 pm | Verifiable Sensing
learn many things from experience, and infer, that the same events will always follow the same causes. By this principle they become acquainted with the more obvious properties of external objects, an...
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06/20/2017 7:25 pm | Control Educate
These clauses, properly understood, may be reduced to one, the total alienation of each associate, together with all his rights, to the whole community; for, in the first place, as each gives himself ...
This does not seem to address a "shortcoming" in Sartre's philosophy since Sartre implies a similar thing in the primacy of the for-itself over all external values and "universal truths" which are fal...
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Plato's concept of forms raises many interesting questions. The concept that everything in the physical world has a form or ideal theoretical existence seems fairly valid upon a cursory examination. A...
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Mill answers these objections brilliantly. The part of the person's actions others should be concerned with is the damage the actions do to others. A person who is a drunk and fails to meet his family...
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Plato's writings were arranged in groups of four. The dialog form used by Plato came naturally out of Greek drama, the Athenian habit of discussion and the use of dialog by Socrates.

Today, there is ...
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Hume claims that humans are like animals:

Therefore, according to Plato, a just ruler should not seek war, because war is unjust. War is evil, and "The creation of evil is not an accomplishment of ju...
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Finally, each man, in giving himself to all, gives himself to nobody; and as there is no associate over which he does not acquire the same right as he yields others over himself, he gains an equivalen...
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In Hume's "Enquiry Concerning Human Nature," he seeks to bring insight to the masses regarding the absurdity of religious belief. Hume uncovers a lack of evidence associated with fervent religious bel...
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Location: Smaller Territories of Chile, Osterinsel, Hangaroa
 
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Member since: 04/10/2006
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