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The concept of a tripartite agency of existence: body, soul, and god, does not completely parallel to Plato either. Plato believed in the physical world, the world of forms, and the greatest form of all: good. A superficial inspection would correlate these to body, soul, and god respectively, but this cannot work. First off, the world of forms, in Platonic terms, equates to god himself according to Augustine. The greatest form of all, however, can be no other than god as well. Plato's third realm, the realm of the perceivable, then must correlate to both Augustine's "body" and his "soul." This, however, cannot be since it is Plato's realm of forms which is also the realm of intellect, a concept paralleling Augustine's "soul." So apparently, Augustine has also created a third segment of Plato's divided line.
Plato answers by claiming that morality is a necessary cause of happiness, that one's happiness is correlary to one's moral behavior. Therefore, an immoral person would be motivated to be moral if he wants to be happy. The happy person, according to Plato, is the just person, a claim that he posits in two ways:
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05/21/2017
Augustine seems to have practically plagiarized Plato. Substitute "god" for "the good" and "the divine" for "the forms" and there you have it: Augustine's philosophy. He even adopts the technique of argument by analogy from Plato. It is interesting to note the inconsistencies in Augustine's own comparison to Platonic theory. Plato considered the forms to be the greater knowledge attainable only by philosophers and those with a truly rational soul. Thus, understanding of forms is a rational process which Plato attributes to the power of human intelligence, counterpoising it to the "inspiration" of poets. In fact, this is the basis for Plato's entire assertion that philosophers not only should be rulers, but are the only people fit to be rulers if the aim of a society is justice.

John Dewey was a student of the pragmatic philosophers Pierce and James. He was a mathematician. Pragmatism is based upon the philosophy of science. It seeks to find undoubtable truths. Like a scientist, the pragmatists try to disprove a fact or theory until there is no doubt. The pragmatist, however, believes there are no totally undoubtable truths, because truth can only be obtained by the future results of current events. Therefore, we never know if something is true until it proves to be so. What is accepted as a truth today, may be proven false in the future. For instance, it was at one time believed the world was flat, and the planets revolved around the earth. This was considered fact. However, when it was proven false, new ideas were accepted as facts, and will be accepted as fact until proven they are proven false. Pragmatic truths, therefore, are the future results of current events. There are no pragmatic truths or undoubtable facts, only probable truths based on empirical experience.
 
05/21/2017
When brought to the level of science, this trend is more easily explored. The more mathematical science of physics is understandable in terms of mathematical forms. F=m*a has a very definite mathematical relationship which transcends force relations in the physical world. My main objection, however, is the universal applicability Plato assumes from the mathematical validity of forms.

In Descartes' process of verification, he verifies things by himself, but what he finds is the subjective truth. In trying to find a way to verify truth, Descartes eliminates everything but what can not be doubted: Can I affirm that I possess any one of those things which I have been speaking of as pertaining to the nature of body? On stopping to consider them with closer attention, and on reviewing all of them, I find none of which I can say that it belongs to me; to enumerate them again would be idle and tedious. (Descartes, Rene, "Meditations," Struhl, Paula Rothenberg, and Struhl Karsten J., editors, Philosophy Now. Random House: 1980, P. 93)
 
05/19/2017
Mill believes that a person has the Liberty to do what he wants as long as he does not harm others. If he does not harm others that is the part of his life that "concerns himself only," but if a person's actions are harmful to other beings then that is the part of his life "which concerns others"(74). Mill states that many people would object to his arguments about individual Liberty:

Additionally, Hume speaks of miraculous events recorded throughout history and shows that there is no acceptable reason to believe in these miracles because they are never witnessed by a vast number of credible men, or do they still occur in present day society. He states that "Men should lye in all Ages," which means that ignorant men have fantasized about miraculous events and have told them to a willing public. The public embraces anything that soothes their superstitious beliefs, and will therefore be extremely willing to accept the fantastical stories as truth. Hume discredits this argument by saying that sufficient opposition to the miracles is realizing the impossibility that such an event could occur in nature. Hume also adds to his argument by saying that nothing can be relegated to the "Laws of Nature" unless it has been repeated many times throughout nature. This statement goes against miracles, which are the foundation of religion, because they have not held up under natural laws, and therefore, the population is being deluded into religious belief from pious individuals in society.
 
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I have always considered that the two questions respecting God and the Soul were the chief of those that ought to be demonstrated by philosophical rather than theological argument, that is, the questi...
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On the other hand, de Beauvoir could assert that other's freedom is necessary to your own freedom, and thus you must value their freedom in order to be truly free. This latter valuation of other's fre...
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Usually, for beginners the best places to gather information about this re-emerging and mysterious topic, is at local lectures or workshops. Other resources may be the library or people who are intere...
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But this carpenter was isolated from anything but justice and virtue from birth, making it impossible that he would act unjustly. Does this mean that Socrates' justice is simply doing what you are tol...
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The range of Plato's knowledge was vast. He developed a deep insight into all the arts and sciences, including mathematics, physics, astronomy, politics, ethics, esthetics, poetry, painting, sculpture...
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Hofstader, a supporter of Dewey's metaphysics describes "the aim of metaphysics as a general theory of existence. . .the discovery of the basic types of involvement's and their relationships" (Qtd in ...
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1. If x is happy, then x is just, and

Modern times have obviously proven Marx' assumptions of the self-destructive tendency of capitalism to be much more latent and controllable. The dynamic and dest...
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05/29/2017 1:18 am | Keeping Separate Formulation
Jean-Jacques Rousseau makes it explicitly clear in his writings, "The Social Contract and Discourses" that he believes strongly in personal freedom and autonomy. Rousseau believed that a truly free go...
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06/16/2017 5:38 pm | According Holds Society
Machiavelli, however, was a realist. He was concerned with how things were in reality, not how things could be if the world was perfect. He was greatly influenced by his failures in public life. He ha...
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05/29/2017 1:44 pm | Favored Totalitarian
Perhaps the leap from philosophical metaphysics to philosophical pragmatics was too steep for Dewey. Nature changes slowly and so do our values and the way we experience nature. Dewey's pragmatism bui...
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06/17/2017 5:56 pm | Habit Learning
Mill notes that it may be further objected that a person may set a bad example for others by his actions and in that way do harm to others (75). Therefore, we should be concerned with everyone's actio...
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Plato's writings were arranged in groups of four. The dialog form used by Plato came naturally out of Greek drama, the Athenian habit of discussion and the use of dialog by Socrates.

Today, there is ...
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Plato's theory of the soul can be found in his major work, *The Republic*, where it is a response to the challenge of the Sophists as to why one ought to live morally. The Sophists in Plato's time wer...
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Pausanias discusses two kind of love. Pausanias says Phaedrus—who spoke just before Pausanias—should have differentiated between the heavenly love and the earthly love. He claims there are two loves j...
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Now that it is easier to focus in on some of these topics, a clear and open mind must be available to allow the information that is going to be presented to register. This is where support is helpful,...
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Socrates, however, consistently cites that the people of the kallipolis, raised in virtue, justice, and with a knowledge of what is good, will realize the justice of the kallipolis and act according t...
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Location: Benin, Ouémé, Porto Novo
 
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Member since: 04/10/2006
Profile last updated: 04/10/2006
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